Brief Summary: This project is a ideal solution to harvest Solar energy for charging purpose. This charger can replenish almost all types of batteries including Mobile phone battery. It uses a Solar Module to convert light energy into electrical energy.
In this project, a small 12 volt-5 Watt solar panel is used as the source of current. The cells in the panel are made up of semiconductor material which transforms light energy into electrical energy. When the sunlight is maximum, the solar module can generate around 16.5 volts at 400 mA. This current is used to charge a Lead Acid battery.
In order to achieve high efficiency, large value capacitors C1 and C2 arw used in the circuit, which act as current buffers, so that panels are not affected during the charging process. Red LED indicates the charging process.
Students Name: Om Prakash, Ranjeet Kumar, Rishav Kumar, Rchir Kumar, Sandeep Singh ( 8th Semester)
Assisted by: Rajesh Kumar, HOD , ECE & Gagandeep Singh, Asstt. Prof
Brief Summary: The main objective of this project is to control home Appliances using mobile APP using Bluetooth technology. This project is a fine combination of Android mobile technology and embedded system. Using this project, the user can control Home appliances using Android mobile, such that android application is installed on his/her Android mobile handset. The user can send commands using that application.
Working: This project consists of a Bluetooth receiver. This Bluetooth device is connected to the circuit which has a decoder. This decoder sends a code for the respective command sent by the user. Then the respective device connected to the circuit will be turned on or off depending on the command given. At the output side of Home Appliances Controlling using Android Mobile via Bluetooth, the 8 relays and a buzzer are connected for maximum utilization.
Students Name: Vivek Kumar, Kumar Gaurav, Shubham Singh, Ankita Rana, Nikita Sohal, Uzma Wani Semester 8th
Assisted by: Ms. Leena Mahajan, Asstt Prof, IGCE
Brief Summary: The main objective of this project is to design a RFID based toll plaza system for security purposes. In this system, the gates open and allow people only with the authorized RFID tags. The authorized tags holder IDâ€™s are programmed to leave or enter the premises.
Working: This project is an extension to Simple toll plaza system. The toll amount is charged based on the category of the vehicle driving through the plaza. The vehicle categories taken here are two-wheeler & four-wheeler. When a user scans his ID at the toll plaza, some amount is charged from his account depending upon his vehicle category. User also has the facility to recharge his account. The project has been developed by interfacing RFID with AT89C51. The relevant messages are also displayed on a 16x2 LCD. The source code for the program is written in C programming language.
Students Name (8th Semester) : Sunidhi, Waheed, Mazid
Assisted by: Rajesh Kumar, HOD ECE, Leena Mahajan-Asstt Prof
Technical Support: Mr. Navdeep Singh(Lab Instructor) & Vandana Mago (Lab Instructor)
Brief Summary: The main objective of this project is to provide complete digital home automation. This device is the need of modern smart living with the automatic control of electric appliances along with the total security. This project is based on the powerful idea leading to a concept towards the practical implementation of a home automation and security system.
Working: The sensors at the entrance activates with punching of right password in the keypad provided. If the code doesnâ€™t matches, then the SMS is delivered on the mobile of the house owner, else if code matches, the door opens. When the person enters the first room, the electrical appliances are switched on by electronic system attached with the door sensors. These sensors installed at the door also counts the number of persons entering or leaving the room, according to that the desired output of various household devices like fans, air conditioners or heaters, can be controlled. This project provides complete home automation along with the security systems.
Students Name (8th Semester) : Abhishek Kumar, Dimson Soubham, Navjot Singh, Mudasir Abas, Abhishek Thakur
Assisted by: Ms. Leena Mahajan (Asstt Prof) & Mr Gagandeep Singh( Asstt Prof)
Technical Support: Mr. Jagdeep Singh (Lab Instructor)
Brief Summary: The main objective of this project is to orient solar panels toward the Sun. In this project the flat-panel photovoltaic systems are used , along with the trackers. These trackers are used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming sunlight and a photovoltaic panel. This increases the amount of energy produced from a fixed amount of installed power generating capacity.
Working: The Solar Trackers are devices which will automatically orient in the direction of high intensity sunlight to effectively harness maximum solar power. In this project Automatic Solar Tracker is develiped using a solar panel, light-dependent resistor (LDR) and DC Motors based on Arduino platform. When the sun moves, the LDR sensor senses a reduction in light intensity forcing the DC Motors to adjust solar panel accordingly in the direction of high intensity. When compared to a fixed solar panel, this tracking system produces 40% more energy!
Students Name (8th Semester) : Wakar, Tariq, Sartaj, Satish, Yaseen, Ayaz Ahamad
Assisted by: Mr Rajesh Kumar, Assoc Prof & HOD, Ms Leena Mahajan (AP) & Mr. Gagandeep Singh (AP)
Technical Supported By : Mr. Navdeep Singh & Mr. Jagdeep Singh (Lab Instructor)
This innovative project is developed by ME students under the guidance of Prof. Anil Bharti. The objective is to design a self propelled hydraulic lift, to facilitate the repairing of street lights of college campus or to undertake any repair work up to a height of 20 feet. This lift can easily lift two persons, to a height of 20 feet above ground. Such system, available in the market cost around 2 to 5 lakhs, but students managed to design this lift in just Rs.70, 000. Moreover it is propelled by a Bajaj Chetek 1.5 HP petrol engines, that can be drive able to any remote place and same engine is used to activate hydraulic system also.
|1||ANIL||1245373||12408||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
|2||Joginder Singh||1245394||12429||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
|3||Mandeep Singh||1245405||12438||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
|4||Maninder singh||1245407||12440||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
|5||Parminder Singh||1245415||12446||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
|6||Shashikant Verma||1245440||12471||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
|7||Shubam Sood||1245442||12473||Mobile Hydraulic Lift|
eCampus Cart is a Battery operated pollution free and noise free vehicle, developed by ME students, as a part of their major Project work in final year. The main objective is to design a vehicle that should be very economical, eco-friendly and reliable, and the objective is well achieved! eCart is capable of carrying 4 to 5 persons. Its utility shalll be realized especially during admission period to facilitate parents and visitors to venture within the Indo Global Campus. It can travel 70 KM in a single charge @ 40-45 Km/hr. The charging time is 3 hrs fast charge & 8 hrs trickling slow charge. The vehicle's chassis and suspension is fabricated in workshop whereas DC motor, controller and other electrical parts are purchased from market. The market price of similar vehicle is around 2 to 2.5 Lakhs, but students managed to limit its cost below 1.4 Lakhs.
|Inspired by : Anil Bharti and Sameer Tiwari|
Foot operated hand washing tap â€“ Foot operated Tap can be opened by pressing a foot operated pedal. It is constructed by simple lever arm mechanism to operate the tap. The main body and mechanisms is made from SS306 grade steel to prevent corrosion and pitting effects. It ergonomically designed and very convenient to use, require very less power to operate and a very useful if fitted in washrooms.
Thermoelectric refrigerator â€“ The main objective of this project is to design a thermoelectric generator that can produce cooling as well as heating effect just by changing polarity of dc current source. The project is based on Peltier effect, which states that when a DC current is passed through a thermoelectric generator module (Bunch of dissimilar metal junctions in form of solid state system) the cooling effect is produced. Conventional refrigeration systems have many drawbacks pertaining to energy efficiency and use of CFC gases. There is no moving part and no noise in this system. The thermo electric refrigerator can be powered either by six volt battery or solar panels.
Pedal operated washing machine â€“ The students have shown innovation by coupling drum of a convenient washing machine to a bicycle through a variable speed gear box. The basic aim is to provide exercising equipment, whose power can be utilized in some productive work like washing and rinsing clothes.
Briefcase Car: It is battery propelled portable car that can be folded and carried along with luggage very conveniently. It can carry one passenger along with weight of 5 -10 kg, up to a distance of 15 TO 20 kms at a speed of 15 â€“ 20 km per hour. The briefcase car consists of DC motor coupled with rear wheels. The DC motor is powered with 12 Volt, 50 Amp. Li-ion Battery
Green building materials are the energy efficient materials. Green building materials are composed of renewable rather than non-renewable resources. Green materials are environmentally responsible because impacts are considered over the life of product.
Some of the Green building materials are:
SLAG BRICK: It is one of the green building material. Slag is the bi-product of steel. In this brick the firing temperature reduces upto 150 C.
Heat Insulation Tiles (Freddo Tiles): They are also a green building material. They are heat insulators, anti-bacterial, anti-skid and also impervious to the water. They are light in weight and having high solar reflective index about 96%.
Double Glazed Unit (DGU): It is also a green building material. It is heat insulator as well as sound proof.
Paver Block: The paver block percolates surface water directly into the ground and recharges the ground water.
FLOATING CONCRETE BLOCKS
INTRODUCTION : Lightweight concrete can be defined as a type of concrete which includes an expanding agent in it that increases the volume of the mixture while reducing the dead weight. It is lighter than the conventional concrete with a dry density of 300 kg/m3 up to 1840 kg/m3. The main specialties of lightweight concrete are itsare its low density and low thermal conductivity.
ADVANTAGE : Lightweight concrete is of utmost importance to the construction industry. The advantages of lightweight concrete are its reduced mass and improved thermal and sound insulation properties, while maintaining adequate strength. The marginally higher cost of the lightweight concrete is offset by size reduction of structural elements, less reinforcing steel and reduced volume of concrete, resulting in overall cost reduction. The reduced weight has numerous advantages; one of them is reduced demand of energy during construction.
Light Weight:Density range from 650 Kg/m3 to 1850 Kg/m3 as compared to 1800 Kg/m3 to 2400 Kg/m3 for conventional brick and concrete respectively. Despite millions of tiny air filled cells, it is strong and durable. There is Lightweight advantage for the structure design, leading to savings in supporting structures and foundation.
Compressive Strength: 2.0 to 7.0 N/mm2.
Excellent Acoustic Performance: It can be used as effective sound barrier and for acoustic solutions. Hence, highly suitable for partition walls, floor screens / roofing and panel material in auditoriums.
Earthquake Resistant: Since lighter than concrete & brick, the lightness of the material increases resistance against earthquake.
Insulation: Superior thermal insulation properties compared to that of conventional brick and concrete, so reduces the heating and cooling expenses. In buildings, light-weight concrete will produce a higher fire rated structure.
Workability: Products made from lightweight concrete are lightweight, making them easy to place using less skilled labour. The bricks can be sawed, drilled and shaped like wood using standard hand tools, regular screws and nails. It is simpler than brick or concrete.
Lifespan: Weather proof, termite resistant and fire proof.
Savings in Material: Reduces dead weight of filler walls in framed structures by more than 50% as compared to brickwork resulting in substantial savings. Due to the bigger and uniform shape of blocks, there is a saving in bed mortar and plaster thickness. In most cases the higher cost of the light-weight concrete is offset by a reduction of structural elements, less reinforcing steel and reduced volume of concrete.
Water Absorption: Closed cellular structures and hence have lower water absorption.
Skim Coating: Do not require plaster and water repellent paint suffices. Wallpapers and plasters can also be applied directly to the surface.
Modulus of Elasticity: The modulus of elasticity of the concrete with lightweight aggregates is lower, 0.5 â€“ 0.75 to that of the normal concrete. Therefore more deflection is there in lightweight concrete.
Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well as more complex techniques such as underground check dams. The techniques usually found in Asia and Africa arise from practices employed by ancient civilizations within these regions and still serve as a major source of drinking water supply in rural areas. Commonly used systems are constructed of three principal components; namely, the catchment area, the collection device, and the conveyance system.
Green building materials are the energy efficient materials. Green building materials are composed of renewable rather than non-renewable resources. Green materials are environmentally responsible because impacts are considered over the life of product.
Why Rainwater Harvesting?
This is perhaps one of the most frequently asked question, as to why one should harvest rainwater. There are many reasons but following are some of the important ones.
Components of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting:
The illustrative design of the basic components of roof top rainwater harvesting system is given in the following typical schematic diagram/The system mainly constitutes of following sub components:
Rainwater harvesting technologies are simple to install and operate. Local people can be easily trained to implement such technologies, and construction materials are also readily available. Rainwater harvesting is convenient in the sense that it provides water at the point of consumption, and family members have full control of their own systems, which greatly reduces operation and maintenance problems. Running costs, also, are almost negligible. Water collected from roof catchments usually is of acceptable quality for domestic purposes
Disadvantages of rainwater harvesting technologies are mainly due to the limited supply and uncertainty of rainfall. Adoption of this technology requires a *bottom up* approach rather than the more usual *top down* approach employed in other water resources development projects. This may make rainwater harvesting less attractive to some governmental agencies tasked with providing water supplies in developing countries, but the mobilization of local government and NGO resources can serve the same basic role in the development of rainwater-based schemes as water resources development agencies in the larger, more traditional public water supply schemes.
Regular concrete cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate
Cement : Coarse Aggregate = 1:6
Absence of fine aggregate creates voids which allows water to percolate through it.
Strength= 7-8 MPa (7 days of curing)
HEAT ISLAND EFFECT-
Sunlight when strikes the surface generally reflects back, but in case of pervious concrete because of voids, the sunlight passes through the voids and less amount is reflected back,which gives natural cooling.
LIGHT PASSING CONCRETE
Introduction- It is type of concrete having property of light transmission by the use of high numerical aperture plastic optical fibre.
Material- The two basic material used for making light passing concrete:-
Ratio â€“ 1:3 and water cement ratio= 0.45
ENERGY CONSERVATION BUILDING FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE
Composite Climate: Composite climate has a very hot and dry summer, followed by a humid season with monsoon rains with the departure of the monsoon it gradually becomes comfortable in autumn, followed by a short winter with the cloudy and wet as well as sunny periods.
Components of energy conservation building:
This type of building is based on two type of technologies viz, active and passive technology. Solar panels, terrace garden etc., contributes to the active part and wind tower, insulation tiles, courtyard etc contributes to the passive part.
The main components of energy conservation buildings are:-
This car is self designed my group of mech. engineering final year students as a part of their major project work. They used second hand spare parts to develop this sports car at very low cost. The chassis is designed and fabricated by high strength & light weight tubular sections, based on Role cage Chassis system. It has a top speed 180 km/hr with an achievable acceleration of 0 to 80 km/ hr in just 6 seconds! It is a Rear wheel drive and engine capacity of 1600cc producing 88 bhp.
A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is capable of travelling over land, water, mud or ice and other surfaces. Hovercraft can travel on rivers, tidal estuaries etc. can be equipped with hydrographic and seismic survey equipments to carry out studies in the shallow water areas, that before were inaccessible by any other means. A Prototype model of Hovercraft is being designed by ME students as their final year Major Project submission.
Programmable Hydraulic power metal sheet cutter, designed and manufactured by mechanical 8th-semester students. This power sheet cutter can be reprogrammed to alter parameters like cutting force, cut sheet size and feed rate, highly in demand for industrial applications.
INDOGLOBAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ABHIPUR (MOHALI)
Programmable Hydraulic Power Metal Sheet Cutter
INTRODUCTION Sheet Metal Cutting is a very important process in many Industry segments. Fast growing industry segments like automotive have fuelled the growth opportunities of sheet metalworking. This sheet cutting machine can cut the sheet automatically and continuously. It is a machine that use for cut the thin metal sheet. It is automatic functioning machine. It is able to cut the sheet slices according to set values. It is fully automatic machine so it is time consuming project. It has more accuracy then manual. We are using a cylinder as a feeder to control all processes like holding sheet and feeding the sheet. It is fully automated so it is reducing wastage of material.
OUR OBJECTIVE In addition to that the product should be small in size so that it is easier to carry the product from one place to another. It is non-conventional process so it increases the quality, accuracy and value of the product.
|S. No.||Component||Price in Rs|
|5||Feeder pneumatic cylinder||3000|
|7||PLC - Power Supply||7000|
|8||Two Switches two way||700|
|9||Frame of heavy channel||4000|
|10||Four Solenoid Valves With Manifold||5500|
|11||Air Supply Pipe||500|
Specification of Component
|1||Pneumatic Cylinder||Bore-50mm, Strok-150mm & Max Pressure is 1MP|
|2||Two Sensors||OD 12MM, Sen. 04mm, Type- PNP NO|
|3||Two Grippers||Bore- 20mm, Parallel Type, Double Acting|
|4||Scissors Blade||Shearing Blade, KTC Tools|
|5||Feeder pneumatic cylinder||Compact Cylinder, Bore Size-25mm, Stroke Length- 50mm|
|6||MCB||Moeller, Se. No. JQ82B, V(230/400)|
|7||PLC - Power Supply||Model No. DBP 14, 15A|
|8||Two Switches||Element Switches|
|9||Frame||Square Pipe Frame|
|10||Compressor||2HP, Max Press.- 10bar|
|11||Four Solenoid Valves||24V DC|
|Air Supply Pipe||Poly Yurethane 98|
Pneumatic CylinderWe have used the SMC company pneumatic cylinders and gripper. The PLC and power supply is used DELTA Company. Pneumatic cylinder sometimes known as air cylinders are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion.
SensorAt the heart of an Inductive Proximity Sensor is an electronic oscillator consisting of an inductive coil made of numerous turns of very fine copper wire, a capacitor for storing electrical charge, and an energy source to provide electrical excitation. The size of the inductive coil and the capacitor are matched to produce a self-sustaining sine wave oscillation at a fixed frequency. The coil and the capacitor act like two electrical springs with a weight hung between them, constantly pushing electrons back and forth between each other. Electrical energy is fed into the circuit to initiate and sustain the oscillation. Without sustaining energy, the oscillation would collapse due to the small power losses from the electrical resistance of the thin copper wire in the coil and other parasitic losses.
GripperA pneumatic gripper is a specific type of pneumatic actuator that typically involves either parallel or angular motion of surfaces. Tooling jaws or Fingers that will grip an object. When combined with other pneumatic, electric, or hydraulic components, the gripper can be used as part of a "pick and place" system that will allow a component to be picked up and placed somewhere else as part of a manufacturing system.
Scissors Blade (or shear Blade)Premium grade High Carbon/High Chrome tool steels, providing maximum life between regrinds when cutting mild steel up to .250â€ť thick on mechanical shears. This grade is also ideal for shearing mild steel up to .375â€ť thick on hydraulic shears, due to the lack of impact and a slower cutting action. For shearing stainless steels, most OEMâ€™s recommend that you reduce stated capacities by 50%.
MCB (Main Circuit Breaker)MCB is known as main circuit breaker. It is use as circuit breaker. It is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current, typically resulting from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)The second generation DVP-SS2 series slim type PLC keeps the basic sequential control function from the DVP-SS series PLC but with faster execution speed and enhanced real time monitoring capability.
PLC Power Supply
|2||Dimensions (L x W x D)||98 x 97 x 38 mm|
|3||Unit Weight||0.21 kg (0.46 lb)|
|4||Indicator||Green LED (DC OK)|
|6||Noise (1 Meter from power supply)||Sound Pressure Level (SPL) < 25dBA|
SOLENOID VALVESeries SY offers major advances in valve performance for cost-effective solutions to your requirements. The series offers high flow with low power consumption in a compact design. The SY is available in body ported or base mounted styles and can be used individually or manifold mounted.
WORKINGThe Automatic sheet cutting machine is fully Automatic machine. They work with PLC (Programing logic control). The PLC is working with the programing that is made with the delta company software DELTA ISP SOFT. This software is make the programing as per the PLC model no. Because the PLC is the same company as DELTA. We have used the delta PLC Model No: SS2. This PLC is working on the ladder logic program. So we have made this program in company laptop and upload to the program in PLC throw the special connector of the PLC that is connect in serial port laptops only. Then we have connected the compressor pipe to the manifold. Then we have start the machine as the help of two switches Red and green. Hold the Red button to reset the machine and to hold the sheet first time. Then we have release the red button and the movable pneumatic gripper (back pneumatic gripper) is clamp (grip) the sheet. Then we have start the machine process to press the green button. Then the machine is start and first the fix gripper (front gripper) is hold the sheet and the Scissors blade is cut the sheet first time for accurate dimension. The scissor blade is work With Pneumatic cylinder. The pneumatic cylinder stroke length is 150mm and the bore size of cylinder is 50mm. The cylinder is connecting with scissor blade with help joint that is weld on scissor. And then the scissor is go up and the front fixed gripper is unclamping the sheet and back gripper is go clamp the sheet and they move forward with the help of small compact pneumatic cylinder. The compact pneumatic cylinder stroke length is 50 mm and bore size is 25mm. the sheet is go forward with the length of 50mm. because the small cylinder stroke length is 50mm and then the front gripper is clamp the sheet and the back gripper is unclamping and the scissor blade cut the sheet as the length of 50mm. and then the back gripper goes back. And the same process is working continues. Repeat the steps the machine cannot stop without press the red button. It is the working of the ASCM. The sheet length is change with change the program of the PLC .
Applications of Automatic Sheet Cutting Machine
Future ScopeSince old age man is always trying to gain more and more luxurious. Man is always trying to develop more and more modified technique with increasing the aesthetic look and economic consideration. Hence there is always more and more scope. But being the Diploma Engineers and having the ability to think and plan. But due to some time constraints, and also due to lack of funds, we only have thought and put in the report the following future modifications-
CONCLUSIONNow we know that Pneumatic Shearing machine is very cheap as compared to hydraulic shearing machine. The range of the cutting thickness can be increased by arranging a high pressure compressor and installing more hardened blades. This machine is advantageous to small sheet metal cutting industries as they cannot afford the expensive hydraulic shearing machine.
A working model of robotic arm hydraulically operated and controlled by syringes filled with fluid. This project is based on the applications of industrial automation using simplified hydraulics. All the parts and material is highly economical to perform standard operations of a Robotic arm.
A cooling tower is a specialized heat exchanger in which air and water are brought into direct contact with each other in order to reduce the water's temperature. As this occurs, a small volume of water is evaporated, reducing the temperature of the water being circulated through the tower.
Water, which has been heated by an industrial process or in an air-conditioning condenser, is pumped to the cooling tower through pipes. The water sprays through nozzles onto banks of material called "fill," which slows the flow of water through the cooling tower, and exposes as much water surface area as possible for maximum air-water contact. As the water flows through the cooling tower, it is exposed to air, which is being pulled through the tower by the electric motor-driven fan.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a cooling water system
TABLE 2 Key Technical Specifications
|1||Type of cooling tower||Induced Draft counter flow type|
TABLE 3 Cooling Power Performance
|S. No.||Parameter Reference||Units||CT|
|1||Dry bulb temperature||C||36*|
|2||Wet bulb temperature||C||25*|
|3||CT inlet temperature||C||42*|
|4||CT outlet temperature||C||35*|
TABLE 4 Bill of Material
|S. No.||PRODUCT||COST (Rs)|
|1||Frame (mild steel)||1200|
|2||Cooling Tower Casing (FRP)||850|
|7||Electric Panel Board||300|
Tower materialsOriginally, cooling towers were constructed primarily with wood, including the frame, casing, louvers, fill and cold-water basin. Sometimes the cold-water basin was made of concrete. Today, manufacturers use a variety of materials to construct cooling towers. Materials are chosen to enhance corrosion resistance, reduce maintenance, and promote reliability and long service life. Galvanized steel, various grades of stainless steel, glass fiber, and concrete are widely used in tower construction, as well as aluminum and plastics for some components. Frame and casing. Wooden towers are still available, but many components are made of different materials, such as the casing around the wooden framework of glass fiber, the inlet air louvers of glass fiber, the fill of plastic and the cold-water basin of steel. Many towers (casings and basins) are constructed of galvanized steel or, where a corrosive atmosphere is a problem, the tower and/or the basis are made of stainless steel. Larger towers sometimes are made of concrete. Glass fiber is also widely used for cooling tower casings and basins, because they extend the life of the cooling tower and provide protection against harmful chemicals.
Fill.Plastics are widely used for fill, including PVC, polypropylene, and other polymers. When water conditions require the use of splash fill, treated wood splash fill is still used in wooden towers, but plastic splash fill is also widely used. Because of greater heat transfer efficiency, film fill is chosen for applications where the circulating water is generally free of debris that could block the fill passageways.
Nozzles. Plastics are also widely used for nozzles. Many nozzles are made of PVC, ABS, polypropylene, and glass-filled nylon.
Fans. Aluminum, glass fiber and hot-dipped galvanized steel are commonly used fan materials. Centrifugal fans are often fabricated from galvanized steel. Propeller fans are made from galvanized steel, aluminum, or molded glass fiber reinforced plastic.
2.2 Mechanical draft cooling tower Mechanical draft towers have large fans to force or draw air through circulated water. The water falls downwards over fill surfaces, which help increase the contact time between the water and the air - this helps maximize heat transfer between the two. Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters such as fan diameter and speed of operation, fills for system resistance etc. Mechanical draft towers are available in a large range of capacities. Towers can be either factory built or field erected - for example concrete towers are only field erected. Many towers are constructed so that they can be grouped together to achieve the desired capacity. Thus, many cooling towers are assemblies of two or more individual cooling towers or "cells." The number of cells they have, e.g., a eight-cell tower, often refers to such towers. Multiple-cell towers can be lineal, square, or round depending upon the shape of the individual cells and whether the air inlets are located on the sides or bottoms of the cells. The three types of mechanical draft towers are summarized in (Table 1).
ASSESSMENT OF COOLING TOWERS This section describes how the performance of cooling powers can be assessed. The performance of cooling towers is evaluated to assess present levels of approach and range against their design values, identify areas of energy wastage and to suggest improvements. During the performance evaluation, portable monitoring instruments are used to measure the following parameters:
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES This section includes main areas for improving energy efficiency of cooling towers. The main areas for energy conservation include:
4.1 Selecting the right cooling towers Once a cooling tower is in place it is very difficult to significantly improve its energy performance. A number of factors are of influence on the cooling tower's performance and should be considered when choosing a cooling tower: capacity, range, approach, heat load, wet bulb temperature, and the relationship between these factors. This is described below.
4.1.1 Capacity Heat dissipation (in kCal/hour) and circulated flow rate (m3/hr) are an indication of the capacity of cooling towers. However, these design parameters are not sufficient to understand the cooling tower performance. For example, a cooling tower sized to cool 4540 m3/hr through a 13.9 Â°C range might be larger than a cooling tower to cool 4540 m3/hr through 19.5 Â°C range. Therefore other design parameters are also needed.
4.1.2 Range Range is determined not by the cooling tower, but by the process it is serving. The range at the exchanger is determined entirely by the heat load and the water circulation rate through the exchanger and going to the cooling water. The range is a function of the heat load and the flow circulated through the system:
Range Â°C = Heat load (in kCal/hour) / Water circulation rate (l/hour)
Cooling towers are usually specified to cool a certain flow rate from one temperature to another temperature at a certain wet bulb temperature. For example, the cooling tower might be specified to cool 4540 m3/hr from 48.9Â°C to 32.2Â°C at 26.7Â°C wet bulb temperature.
4.1.3 Approach As a general rule, the closer the approach to the wet bulb, the more expensive the cooling tower due to increased size. Usually a 2.8Â°C approach to the design wet bulb is the coldest water temperature that cooling tower manufacturers will guarantee. When the size of the tower has to be chosen, then the approach is most important, closely followed by the flow rate, and the range and wet bulb would be of lesser importance.
Approach (5.5Â°C) = Cold-water temperature 32.2 Â°C - Wet bulb temperature (26.7Â°)
4.1.4 Heat loadThe heat load imposed on a cooling tower is determined by the process being served. The degree of cooling required is controlled by the desired operating temperature of the process. In most cases, a low operating temperature is desirable to increase process efficiency or to improve the quality or quantity of the product. However, in some applications (e.g. internal combustion engines) high operating temperatures are desirable. The size and cost of the cooling tower is increases with increasing heat load. Purchasing undersized equipment (if the calculated heat load is too low) and oversized equipment (if the calculated heat load is too high) is something to be aware of Process heat loads may vary considerably depending upon the process involved and are therefore difficult to determine accurately. On the other hand, air conditioning and refrigeration heat loads can be determined with greater accuracy.
4.1.5 Wet bulb temperatureWet bulb temperature is an important factor in performance of evaporative water cooling equipment, because it is the lowest temperature to which water can be cooled. For this reason, the wet bulb temperature of the air entering the cooling tower determines the minimum operating temperature level throughout the plant, process, or system. The following should be considered when pre-selecting a cooling tower based on the wet bulb temperature: Theoretically, a cooling tower will cool water to the entering wet bulb temperature. In practice, however, water is cooled to a temperature higher than the wet bulb temperature because heat needs to be rejected from the cooling tower.
4.2 Fill media effectsIn a cooling tower, hot water is distributed above fill media and is cooled down through evaporation as it flows down the tower and gets in contact with air. The fill media impacts energy consumption in two ways:
Splash fills media. Splash fill media generates the required heat exchange area by splashing water over the fill media into smaller water droplets. The surface area of the water droplets is the surface area for heat exchange with the air.
Film fills media. In a film fill, water forms a thin film on either side of fill sheets. The surface area of the fill sheets is the area for heat exchange with the surrounding air. Film fill can result in significant electricity savings due to fewer air and pumping head requirements.
Low-clog film fills Low-clog film fills with higher flute sizes were recently developed to handle high turbid waters. Low clog film fills are considered as the best choice for seawater in terms of power savings and performance compared to conventional splash type fills.
4.3 Pumps and water distribution PumpAreas for energy efficiency improvements are discussed in details in the Pumps and Pumping Systems chapter.
Optimize cooling water treatment Cooling water treatment (e.g. to control suspended solids, algae growth) is mandatory for any cooling tower independent of what fill media is used. With increasing costs of water, efforts to increase Cycles of Concentration (COC), by cooling water treatment would help to reduce make up water requirements significantly. In large industries and power plants improving the COC is often considered a key area for water conservation.
Install drift eliminators It is very difficult to ignore drift problems in cooling towers. Nowadays most of the end user specifications assume a 0.02% drift loss. But thanks to technological developments and the production of PVC, manufacturers have improved drift eliminator designs. As a result drift losses can now be as low as 0.003 -0.001%.
4.4 Cooling tower fans The purpose of a cooling tower fan is to move a specified quantity of air through the system. The fan has to overcome the system resistance, which is defined as the pressure loss, to move the air. The fan output or work done by the fan is the product of air flow and the pressure loss. The fan output and kW input determines the fan efficiency. The fan efficiency in turn is greatly dependent on the profile of the blade. Blades include:
5. OPTION CHECKLIST
This section lists the most important options to improve energy efficiency of cooling towers.
First we concerned the meaning of cooling tower and knew each one how to use it, how it is installed, and from which materials it is prepared.
Then identified the main two types of cooling tower and recognized the series of work of each one and its uses.
Then the evaluation of the cooling tower work and how to increase the energy efficiency opportunities have been discussed.
By an effective list we knew how to check the work of cooling tower.
It is very difficult to achieve higher efficiency with small prototype.
|SUBMITTED TO:||SUBMITTED BY:|
|ER. ANIL BHARTI||AMIT KUMAR (1414514)|
|ER. SAMIR TIWARI||HARSHAL RANA (1414520)|
|NARINDER MEHRA (1414522)|
The Segway is a two-wheeled electric vehicle used as a convenient way to travel around towns and cities. It is a self-balancing device and its name is derived from the word "segue" which literally means "follows"
Computers, sensors, and electric motors in the base of the Segway keep the device upright when powered on, with balancing enabled. The rider commands to go forward or backward by shifting their weight forward or backward on the platform.
It uses gyroscopic sensors and accelerometer-based leveling sensors to detect the resulting changes in its pitch angle and, to maintain balance; it drives its wheels forward or backward as needed to return its pitch to upright. In the process, the rider establishes and then maintains a desired speed by modulating the extent and duration of their fore/aft weight shifts.
A Prototype model of Segway is designed by ME students, which is very near to actual device, in their final year Major Project submission.
|Emissions Output Summary||Energy Consumption Summary|
|Operating a Segway PT creates:||The Segway PT is:|
|5.6 times less greenhouse gas per mile than a Toyota Prius (82% reduction)||4.5 times more energy efficient than a Toyota Prius|
|14 times less greenhouse gas than the average American car (93% reduction)||11 times more energy efficient than the average American car|
|20 times less greenhouse gas than a large Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (95% reduction)||17 times more energy efficient than a large SUV|
|Gear head motor (Nos=2)||6000|
|Chain drives (Nos=2)||700|
|Solar Plate (Nos=1)||1500|
Injection Moulding Machine description:
Injection moulding machine-15 gm capacity with changeable die
Dies and tools
PE /PP Granules
Injection Moulding is a fast and economical process for producing finished plastic item. There is a good demand for plastic injection moulded articles in automobile, electronic, electrical and mechanical industry. Injection moulded articles such as bearing house, gear covers etc. are finding increasing uses and replacing conventional metallic components. Household articles like water bottle, a plastic cup lid, or water bucket, food container, theyâ€™re all made from plastic injection mold.
Lakhwinder Singh & Davinder Singh Students of Mechanical Engineering VII Sem for winning the TAP Business Plan Competition held at CII, PHD Chamber Sector 31 Chandigarh.The winning team won first prize and cash money of Rs. 40,000/-